Table 1.

A comparison between evidence-based medicine and P4 medicine.

Reactive Medicine—Evidence-Based Medicine Proactive P4 Medicine
Reactive—respond after a patient is sick (symptoms-based) Proactive—responds before a patient is sick (based on pre-symptomatic markers)
Disease treatment system Wellness maintenance system
Few measurements Many measurements, including complete genome sequencing, high-parameter blood diagnostics, many longitudinal omics measurements
Disease-centric, with standard of care associated with population-based disease diagnosis Individual-centric, with standard of care tailored more fully to multiple measurements on the individual
Records not highly linked nor data integrated Deeply integrated data that can be mined for continued improvement of healthcare strategies
Large-scale diffusion of medical information mediated mostly through physicians alone Social networking of patients to enhanced shared experiences and diffusion of knowledge in consultation with their physicians
Drugs tested against large populations—tens of thousands to develop statistics for FDA Stratification of disease populations into small groups, 50 or so, that can be effectively treated to achieve FDA approval
RMMJRambam Maimonides Medical Journal Rambam Health Care Campus 2013 April; 4(2): e0012. ISSN: 2076-9172
Published online 2013 April 30. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10112.