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Figure 3.   Treatment Approach to Neuropsychiatric (NP) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE)

Diffuse or focal NP presentations may arise (1) directly as a result of autoimmune mechanisms (primary NPSLE), in which case treatment should target the most relevant pathologic mechanism (anticoagulation in aPL-associated thrombosis or immunosuppression in antibody-mediated diffuse damage); (2) secondary to complications of the disease or treatment (secondary NPSLE), which may require treatment such as antibiotic therapy for bacterial infection; and (3) finally as a consequence of NP events related to SLE, which may have specific treatment.

HCQ, hydroxychloroquine.

RMMJ Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal Rambam Health Care Campus 2017 January; 8(1): e0001. ISSN: 2076-9172
Published online 2017 January 30. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10276.