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Figure 2.   Illustrative Examples of Factors Affecting Spread (Top Row) or Control (Bottom Row) of Pandemics

A: Typical smallpox rash with extremely contagious pustular lesions. B: The two most common species of rats (reservoirs of Yersinia pestis). C: Xenopsylla cheopis (the rat flea), one of the vectors of Yersinia pestis, which transmits the infecting bacteria from rats to human beings. D: Bifurcated needle used for smallpox vaccination during the last decades of smallpox eradication. E: Cholera bed used to rehydrate patients with severe diarrhea; the drain in the middle is used to facilitate drainage of the copious diarrheal fluid. F: Cone barrier used to prevent rats from invading or leaving ships through the mooring ropes of the ship.

Panel A from, Public Domain by CDC/James Hicks; Panel B modified from (CC BY-SA 3.0); Panel C from

RMMJ Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal Rambam Health Care Campus 2020 July; 11(3): e0027. ISSN: 2076-9172
Published online 2020 July 31. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10418.