Table 1.

Human Coronaviruses (hCoVs).

Species Genus Year of Discovery Disease Association Cellular Receptor
hCoV-229E Alphacoronavirus 1966 Common cold, pneumonia Human aminopeptidase N (APN)
hCoV-OC43 Betacoronavirus 1967 Common cold, pneumonia, neurological dysfunction 9-O-acetylated sialic acid
hCoV-SARS (SARS-CoV) Betacoronavirus 2003 Severe-acute respiratory syndrome Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
hCoV-NL63 Alphacoronavirus 2004 Common cold, pneumonia, bronchiolitis Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
hCoV-HKU1 Betacoronavirus 2005 Common cold, pneumonia 9-O-acetylated sialic acid
hCoV-MERS (MERS-CoV) Betacoronavirus 2012 Severe-acute respiratory syndrome Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)
HCoV-SARS-2 Betacoronavirus 2020 Severe-acute respiratory syndrome Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
RMMJ Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal Rambam Health Care Campus 2020 July; 11(3): e0023. ISSN: 2076-9172
Published online 2020 July 31. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10414.