Table 1.

Known Human Diseases Caused by a Coronavirus (see also Figure 1).

Disease Virus Main Manifestation(s) Hospitalization Antiviral Therapy Vaccine Case Fatality (%)
Common cold HCoV-HKU1 Runny nose* Very rare None None 0
Common cold HCoV-OC43 Runny nose* Very rare None None 0
Common cold HCoV-NL63 Runny nose* Very rare None None 0
Common cold HCoV-229E Runny nose* Very rare None None 0
SARS SARS-CoV-1 Pneumonia Very frequent None None 9.5
MERS MERS-CoV Pneumonia Very frequent None None 34.4
COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory tract infection Frequent Remdesivir None >1.6§
*Rare: lower respiratory tract infection (bronchitis or pneumonia).
Upper respiratory tract infection frequent, pneumonia in a minority of patients.
125 different vaccines in various phases of development, none yet approved.
§Case fatality value varies with population characteristics, age distribution, quality of healthcare services, medical equipment, etc.

COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; HCoV-229E, human coronavirus 229E; HCoV-HKU1, human coronavirus Hong Kong U1; HCoV-NL63, human coronavirus Netherlands 63; HCoV-OC43, human coronavirus OC43; MERS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; SARS-CoV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-1; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2.

RMMJ Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal Rambam Health Care Campus 2020 July; 11(3): e0027. ISSN: 2076-9172
Published online 2020 July 31. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10418.