Table 1.

Yoga Therapy Protocol for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM).23

Yoga Therapy Duration Benefits
Jathis (warming up) 5 min Helps loosen the joints and prepares the body for performing asanas

Standing postures Total 10 min
 Palm tree posture: Talasana
 Triangle posture: Trikonasana
 Extended side angle posture: Parsvakonasana
 Hero pose: Veerasana
20 sec each side/asanas/3 sets Stretches and tones up all back and leg muscles
Relieves upper and lower extremities stiffness
Helps reduce the fat accumulation around the waist and hip regions, which helps in insulin sensitivity by ameliorating insulin resistance

Sitting postures Total 7 min for all sitting asanas
 Wind-relieving pose: Pavanamukthasana 10 sec/5 rounds Enhances digestion and elimination of waste
Helps reduce fat accumulation around the abdomen, waist, and hip regions, thus reshaping the body structure
 Compact pose drawing everything to one’s center: Navasana 10 sec/5 rounds Tones up abdominal and thigh muscles in a healthy manner
Sends a pronounced blood supply to the pelvic area by creating healthy tension
Effective for disorders of the intestines, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, and spleen
Stretches and tones up all of the back, arm, and leg muscles
This posture gives an excellent massage to the abdominal organs and is useful for DM patients
 Half spinal twist pose: Vakrasana 10 sec/each side/5 rounds Helps reduce fat accumulation around the abdomen, waist, and hip region, thus reshaping body structure and helping to fight obesity; these asanas also improve insulin sensitivity
 Half Lord of the fishes pose: Ardha matseyendrasana 10 sec/each side /5 rounds Helps correct structural deformities of the spine, shoulder, and upper back regions

Mudras (gestures)
 Topsy-turvy gesture: Viparitakarani*
30 sec/
30 sec relaxation
Promotes healthy metabolic function by stimulating the pancreas and insulin uptake by the insulin-sensitive body cells (i.e. adipose tissue, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle)
Highly recommended for control of blood sugar in DM and corrects thyroid imbalance

Pranayama (breathing techniques in the sitting posture)
 Moon breathing (left side nostril breathing): Chandra nadi
 Primordial chant: Pranava
 Skull shining breathing technique: Kapalbhati
Total 20 min Tones up cardio-respiratory function that may be compromised in DM
Practicing 3–9 rounds daily helps relax the body-emotion-mind complex; this complex enhances insulin sensitivity and decreases insulin sensitivity

Meditation Total 12 min
Primordial chant with gesture: Om japa with mudras 5 min Relaxes the body-emotion-mind complex and provides complete healing through the production of healing vibrations at all levels of existence
 Dynamic body relaxation: Kaya kriya 6 rounds Mind and body relaxation
 Part by part body relaxation technique: Marmanasthana kriya 8 min

Relaxation 5 min Mind and body relaxation
 Corpse pose: Shavasana

Total 60 min

Jathi(s) are warming-up exercises; Asana(s) are characteristic body postures; Mudra(s) are symbolic gestures; Om japa signifies the chanting of sacred sound; Pranayama are breathing techniques.

*To be done with caution.

DM, diabetes mellitus; IR, insulin resistance; min, minute(s); sec, second(s).

RMMJ Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal Rambam Health Care Campus 2022 January; 13(1): e0005. ISSN: 2076-9172
Published online 2022 January 27. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10462