Inflammatory Vasculopathy

Cocaine-induced Vasculitis

Mark Berman, Daphna Paran, and Ori Elkayam

Abstract

The use of cocaine continues to grow worldwide. One of the possible side-effects of cocaine is vasculitis. Two distinct vasculitic syndromes have been described due to cocaine. One is cocaine-induced midline destruc┬Čtive lesion, secondary to a direct vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine, inducing ischemic necrosis of the septal cartilage and perforation of the nasal septum, mimicking findings of granulomatosis with polyangiitis in the upper airways. The other is ANCA-associated vasculitis, attributed to the levamisole component that contaminates about 70% of the cocaine. This type of vasculitis may be myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) positive, and its main manifestations are typical cutaneous findings, arthralgia, oto┬Člaryngologic involvement, and agranulocytosis. A high degree of suspicion and awareness is needed in order properly to diagnose and treat these patients.

Rambam Maimonides Med J 2016;7(4):e0036