An Up-to-date Approach to a Patient with a Suspected Autoinflammatory Disease

Merav Lidar and Eitan Giat


Autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are characterized by seemingly unprovoked self-limited attacks of fever and systemic inflammation potentially leading to amyloidosis. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common AID and therefore the most studied. Besides FMF, the other main hereditary AID are tumor necrosis factor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), and cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndrome (CAPS). These hereditary diseases result from a mutant gene that is involved in the regulation of inflammation, resulting in a characteristic clinical phenotype. The differential diagnosis of AID can be challenging due to a wide overlap in clinical manifestations. Moreover, a considerable proportion of patients present with autoinflammatory symptoms but without a pathogenetic variant on genetic analysis. Furthermore, non-hereditary AID, such as the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome, which is the most common AID in children worldwide, must be excluded in certain circumstances. Herein we shall review the main AID and describe a practical approach to diagnosis in a patient with a clinical suspicion of AID.

Rambam Maimonides Med J 2017;8(1):e0002