Review Article

Oral Biofilm: Development Mechanism, Multidrug Resistance, and Their Effective Management with Novel Techniques

Shakti Rath, Sourav Chandra Bidyasagar Bal, and Debasmita Dubey


Biofilms are formed by the congregation of one or more types of microorganisms that can grow on a firm surface. Dental plaque is one of the most commonly forming biofilms in the oral cavity and appears as a slimy layer on the surface of the teeth. In general, the formation is slow, but biofilms are very adaptive to the changing environment, and a mature biofilm can cause many health-related problems in humans. These biofilms remain unaffected by antibiotics as they do not allow the penetration of antibiotics. Moreover, the increased level of virulence and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in the oral biofilm or dental plaque has made its clinical management a serious clinical challenge worldwide. Chlorhexidine-like antimicrobial drugs have been partially effective in removing such organisms; however, the precise and continuous elimination of these microorganisms without disturbing the normal microbial flora of the oral cavity is still a challenge. This paper focuses on the process of oral biofilm formation, related complications, development of drug-resistant bacteria in these biofilms, and their effective management by the use of different novel techniques.

Rambam Maimonides Med J 2021;12(1):e0004