Role of Regulatory T Cells (Treg) and the Treg Effector Molecule Fibrinogen-like Protein 2 in Alloimmunity and Autoimmunity
Andrzej Chruscinski, Hassan Sadozai, Vanessa Rojas-Luengas, Agata Bartczak, Ramzi Khattar, Nazia Selzner, and Gary A. LevyAbstract
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are critical to the maintenance of immune tolerance. Treg are known to utilize a number of molecular pathways to control immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. Fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2) has been identified by a number of investigators as an important immunosuppressive effector of Treg, which exerts its immunoregulatory activity by binding to inhibitory FcγRIIB receptors expressed on antigen-presenting cells including dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and B cells. More recently, it has been suggested that FGL2 accounts for the immunosuppressive activity of a highly suppressive subset of Treg that express T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT). Here we discuss the important role of Treg and FGL2 in preventing alloimmune and autoimmune disease. The FGL2–FcγRIIB pathway is also known to be utilized by viruses and tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Moving forward, therapies based on modulation of the FGL2–FcγRIIB pathway hold promise for the treatment of a wide variety of conditions ranging from autoimmunity to cancer.
Rambam Maimonides Med J 2015;6(3):e0024