Effectiveness of Inferior Vena Cava Filters without Anticoagulation Therapy for Prophylaxis of Recurrent Pulmonary Embolism
Miri Zektser, Carmi Bartal, Lior Zeller, Roman Nevzorov, Alan Jotkowitz, Vered Stavi, Vitaly Romanyuk, Gregory Chudakov, and Leonid BarskiAbstract
Objective: The optimal treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is anticoagulation therapy. Inferior vena cava filter (IVC) placement is another option for the prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with deep vein thrombosis. This is used mostly in patients with a contraindication to anticoagulant therapy. The purpose of the present study was to compare the two options.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study of two groups of patients with DVT: patients who received an IVC filter and did not receive anticoagulation due to contraindications; and patients with DVT and similar burden of comorbidity treated with anticoagulation without IVC insertion. To adjust for a potential misbalance in baseline characteristics between the two groups, we performed matching for age, gender, and Charlson’s index, which is used to compute the burden of comorbid conditions. The primary outcome was an occurrence of a PE.
Results: We studied 1,742 patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of DVT in our hospital;93 patients from this population received IVC filters. Charlson’s score index was significantly higher in the IVC filter group compared with the anticoagulation group. After matching of the groups of patients according to Charlson’s score index there were no significant differences in primary outcomes.
Conclusion: Inferior vena cava filter without anticoagulation may be an alternative option for prevention of PE in patients with contraindications to anticoagulant therapy.
Rambam Maimonides Med J 2016;7(3):e0019