Original Research

Comparison of Fasting Insulin Level, Homeostatic Model of Insulin Resistance, and Lipid Levels between Patients with Primary Hypertension and Normotensive Subjects

Rithvik Ramesh, Viswanathan Pandurangan, Sudha Madhavan, Devasena Srinivasan, Emmanuel Bhaskar, Lakshmi Marappa, Aiswarya M. Nair, Vaasanthi Rajendran, and Priyadarshini Varadaraj


Background: Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance occurs in obese patients with primary hypertension independent of diabetes and obesity. This study was aimed at assessing serum fasting insulin levels, the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum lipid levels in non-obese patients with primary hypertension when compared to normotensive subjects.

Methods: This observational study comprised 100 patients over 18 years of age, divided into two groups. The hypertensive group comprised non-obese patients with primary hypertension (n=50); the normotensive group comprised normotensive age- and sex-matched individuals (n=50). Patients with diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, obesity, and other causative factors of insulin resistance were excluded from the study. Serum fasting insulin levels and fasting lipid profiles were measured, and insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR. These data were compared between the two groups. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess the extent of a linear relationship between HOMA-IR and to evaluate the association between HOMA-IR and systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

Results: Mean serum fasting insulin levels (mIU/L), mean HOMA-IR values, and fasting triglyceride levels (mg/dL) were significantly higher in the hypertensive versus normotensive patients (10.32 versus 6.46, P<0.001; 1.35 versus 0.84, P<0.001; 113.70 versus 97.04, P=0.005, respectively). The HOMA-IR levels were associated with systolic blood pressure (r value 0.764, P=0.0005).

Conclusion: We observed significantly higher fasting insulin levels, serum triglyceride levels, and HOMA-IR reflecting hyperinsulinemia and possibly an insulin-resistant state among primary hypertension patients with no other causally linked factors for insulin resistance. We observed a significant correlation between systolic blood pressure and HOMA-IR.

Rambam Maimonides Med J 2022;13(2):e0009